Hemorrhoids are vascular cushions in the anal canal that ensure fine continence. These cushions
can be injured and sheared off by longterm constipation or pressing on the toilet. They increase in
size and begin to bleed, in a severe condition the hemorrhoids protrude to the outside. The
treatment depends on the stage.
An anal fissure is a crack in the anal canal that is accompanied by burning pain after bowel
movement and bleeding. The sphincter muscle cramps due to the pain stimulus and prevents
rapid healing of the wound.
Perianal thrombosis is an acute clot in the veins at the outer edge of the sphincter muscle. Within
a few hours, an elastic, usually very painful lump appears on the anus.
A periproctic abscess is a suppurative cavity in the immediate surroundings of the sphincter
muscle that develops within days. It is an emergency in proctology and need an urgent treatment.
An anal fistula is an inflammation originating from the anal canal, in the course of which a pus
duct connects to the anal environment. Purulent secretion probes out of the outer fistula opening,
often causing pain.
Mariske, also known as anal skin tag, do not usually cause any problems as long as the hygienic
supply is guaranteed. Larger skin wrinkles can make anal hygiene more difficult.
Genital warts (Condylomata acuminata) are small, superficial skin tumors in the genital and anal
area that can also spread into the anal canal. They are caused by viruses, which are often
transmitted through sexual or skin contact.
Colon cancer is a malignant tumor that often goes unnoticed for a long time. Initially, there are few
symptoms such as blood in the stool, variable stool behavior or weight loss. Benign intestinal
polyps are precursors of cancer.
Fecal incontinence is defined as the inability to retain stool arbitrarily. It ranges from occasional
stool smearing to complete loss of control over bowel movements.
Anal carcinoma is a malignant tumor in the anal canal or anal rim that usually develops from
degenerate cells of the anal skin.
Prolpas and pelvic floor subsidence
Prolaps occur significantly more frequently in women than in men. However, several factors lead
to the lowering of the muscle plate with increasing age, for example hormonal changes,
overweight, births and operations in the pelvis and perineum. We also see reductions in nerve
diseases such as nerve damage in diabetes mellitus.
The term prolapse refers to an incident. Proctology distinguishes between hemorrhoid prolapse,
anal prolapse and rectal prolapse.
Chronic pelvic floor pain and anal pain
There is no generally binding definition of chronic pain, but it is usually defined as persistent pain
or discomfort associated with mental and social impairment over a period of at least 6 months.
The coccyx fistula (Sinus pilonidalis) is a chronic inflammation in the area of the buttock cleft,
which typically shows small skin openings (fistulas) in the midline between the buttock halves.
Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases